CBD therapuetic effects

Therapeutic effects of CBD

As research into CBD becomes more developed and we begin to understand more about what potential uses it can have, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of scientific papers that investigate these uses. Found below is a cursory list of some major diseases and disorders, with references to papers that investigate the effects of CBD on them. This list is not exhaustive in any way, focusing on literature from 2019 and before. Whilst the data below makes no claims of proof, it exists to demonstrate the vast potential that CBD (and other cannabinoids) may have when it comes to novel medications.

ALS/MND
Degradation of motor neurons leading to weakness, slurred speech and muscle wastage. No known cure, typically affects people in their 60s/70s.

– Rajan T.S et al. (2017), Riva N et al. (2018)

Anxiety

Moderate to severe anxiety is a symptom of several conditions such as panic disorder, PTSD and social phobia. Anxiety can reduce quality of life and cause distress.

– Bergamaschi M.M et al. (2011), Crippa J.A et al. (2011), Crippa et al. (2015), Gomes et al. (2015), Zuardi et al. (2006, 2012)

Arthritis
A very common condition that causes pain and inflammation in joints. Caused by degradation of cartilage or an unnecessary immune response.

– Hammel D.C et al. (2016), Malfait A.M et al (2000)

Asthma

A common lung condition that causes breathing problems. Inflammation of breathing tissues restricts airflow, often caused by allergies, smoke or exercise.

– Vuolo et al (2015), Vuolo F et al (2019)

Autism
While not a disease, Autism Spectrum Disorder can reduce quality of life through anxiety, difficulty communicating and sensitivity to bright lights/loud noises. Cause unknown, but potentially genetic.

– Aran A et al (2018), Poleg S et al (2019)

Alzheimer’s

The most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease is distinguished by a decline in brain function over time including poor memory, confusion and disorientation. The cause is not fully understood.

– Cheng D et al (2014), Esposito et al (2006a), Esposito et al (2006b), Hayakawa K et al (2007), Martin-Moreno A.M et al (2011), Scuderi C et al (2014)

Cancer Diseases
Cancer is uncontrolled reproduction of rogue cells that invade surrounding tissues and cause damage. There are many forms of cancer and 50% of people will develop it at some point in their life.

– El-alfy et al. (2010), Fisher T et al (2016), Fraguas-Sanchez Al et al (2016), Hsiao et al. (2012), Kenyon J et al (2018), Ligresti et al. (2006), Massi P et al (2013), McAllister et al. (2011), Opitz B.J et al (2019), Pellati F et al (2018), Pisanti et al. (2013), Ramer et al. (2014), Ramer R et al (2016), Rocha et al. (2014), Scott et al. (2014), Shoval et al. (2016), Shrivastava et al. (2011), Ward S.J et al (2014)

Chronic Pain

Pain that lasts more than 3 months is referred to as chronic and leads to a serious reduction in quality of life. There are several possible causes; chemical levels in the brain, genetics or experiencing a traumatic event.

– Boychuk et al. (2015), Petzke et al. (2016), Urits I et al (2019)

Depression
Characterised by sadness lasting for at least weeks, depression can be mild or severe enough to lead to suicide. Sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms such as pain, lack of appetite or sex drive.

– Almeida et al. (2013), Bergamaschi et al. (2011), Lemos et al. (2010), Marinho et al. (2015), de Mello S et al. (2014), Moreira et al. (2006), Schier A et al (2014)

Diabetes

Both Type 1 and 2 diabetes are related to a lack of the hormone Insulin, leading to increased blood sugar levels. If unmanaged, it can lead to major health issues or even death.

– Rajesh M et al (2010), Toth C.C et al (2010)

Epilepsy

A neurological condition that causes bursts of electrical activity in the brain, called seizures. Seizures can have a wide range of effects, some of which are severely debilitating.

– Devinsky et al. (2011), Devinsky et al. (2014), Devinsky et al. (2016), Gofshteyn JS et al. (2017), Pamplona F.A et al. (2018), Pertwee (2008), Porter B.E et al. (2013)

Fibromyalgia

A form of chronic pain, often accompanied by tiredness, stiffness and increased sensitivity. Reasonably common with no known cure.

– Moeller-Bertram et al (2019), Sinai A et al (2018)

Huntington’s Disease

An inherited condition that stops the brain working. Worsens over time and is fatal typically within 20 years. Causes poor coordination, depression and personality changes.

– Consroe et al. (1991), Iuvone et al. (2009), Pisanti S et al (2017), Sagredo O et al (2007), Sagredo et al. (2011)

IBS / Chron’s Disease

A lifelong condition characterised by inflammation of the digestive tract. Symptoms may be constant or come and go and consist of diarrhoea, tiredness and stomach cramps.

Esposito G et al (2012), Naftali T et al (2013)

Insomnia

An inability to consistently get regular sleep. Could be an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep or wake, lying awake all night or still feeling tired despite having slept.

– Carlini E.A et al (1981), Linares I.M.P et al (2018)

Ischemic Stroke (cerebral infarction)

Caused by a clot blocking blood flow to the brain. Survivors are often left with long-term brain problems and care requirements for the rest of their life.

– Hayakawa et al. (2007), Hayakawa et al. (2009), Mori M.A et al (2017), Pazos et al. (2012, 2013), Valdepeñas et al. (2011)

Migraine

A strong headache typically felt on one side of the brain, migraines are a common affliction among adults that can occur often of years apart. Thought to be caused by chemicals or blood flow in the brain.

– Russo E.B et al (2005), Russo E.B (2008), Russo E.B (2014), Turner Z et al (2018)

Multiple Sclerosis

A life-long condition that can cause serious disability. Symptoms include fatigue, muscle problems and reduced thinking capability, caused by the body’s immune system attacking the protective covering of the nerve system.

– Buccellato et al (2011), Elliott DM et al (2017), Giacoppo et al (2015), Kozela et al (2011, 2015), Mecha et al (2013)

Parkinson’s Disease

Caused by a loss of nerve cells in the brain, Parkinson’s leads to shaking, stiffness and inflexibility. Affects around 1 in 500 people and has no cure.

–  Chagas M.H.N et al (2014a), Chagas MHN et al (2014b), Iffland K et al (2017), Lastres-Becker et al. (2005), Zuardi et al. (2009)

PTSD

An anxiety disorder caused by very stressful or traumatic events. Suspected to affect 1 in 3 who suffer one of these events. Can cause nightmares, feelings of isolation and flashbacks.

– Bitencourt R.M et al (2018), Campos A.C et al (2012), Elms L et al (2019), Loflin M.J.E et al (2017)

Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease)

A common condition of the nervous system that causes an urge to move one’s legs. Also associated with involuntary jerking of the arms and legs.

– Crippa J.A et al (2019), Ghorayeb (2019)

Schizophrenia

A severe long-term form of psychosis that causes a range of symptoms including hallucinations, delusions and loss of interest. The cause is unknown and it requires constant, bespoke care to properly manage.

– Leweke F.M et al (2012), Morgan C.J.A et al (2008)

Skin problems

A wide range of issues such as eczema, psoriasis or just dryness. Many have no cure, only treatments, but even curable conditions can cause discomfort and irritation.

– Lodzki M et al (2003), Sinai A et al (2018b)

 

As research into CBD becomes more developed and we begin to understand more about what potential uses it can have, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of scientific papers that investigate these uses. Found below is a cursory list of some major diseases and disorders, with references to papers that investigate the effects of CBD on them. This list is not exhaustive in any way, focusing on literature from 2019 and before. Whilst the data below makes no claims of proof, it exists to demonstrate the vast potential that CBD (and other cannabinoids) may have when it comes to novel medications.

ALS/MND
Degradation of motor neurons leading to weakness, slurred speech and muscle wastage. No known cure, typically affects people in their 60s/70s.

– Rajan T.S et al. (2017), Riva N et al. (2018)

Anxiety

Moderate to severe anxiety is a symptom of several conditions such as panic disorder, PTSD and social phobia. Anxiety can reduce quality of life and cause distress.

– Bergamaschi M.M et al. (2011), Crippa J.A et al. (2011), Crippa et al. (2015), Gomes et al. (2015), Zuardi et al. (2006, 2012)

Arthritis
A very common condition that causes pain and inflammation in joints. Caused by degradation of cartilage or an unnecessary immune response.

– Hammel D.C et al. (2016), Malfait A.M et al (2000)

Asthma

A common lung condition that causes breathing problems. Inflammation of breathing tissues restricts airflow, often caused by allergies, smoke or exercise.

– Vuolo et al (2015), Vuolo F et al (2019)

Autism
While not a disease, Autism Spectrum Disorder can reduce quality of life through anxiety, difficulty communicating and sensitivity to bright lights/loud noises. Cause unknown, but potentially genetic.

– Aran A et al (2018), Poleg S et al (2019)

Alzheimer’s

The most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease is distinguished by a decline in brain function over time including poor memory, confusion and disorientation. The cause is not fully understood.

– Cheng D et al (2014), Esposito et al (2006a), Esposito et al (2006b), Hayakawa K et al (2007), Martin-Moreno A.M et al (2011), Scuderi C et al (2014)

Cancer Diseases
Cancer is uncontrolled reproduction of rogue cells that invade surrounding tissues and cause damage. There are many forms of cancer and 50% of people will develop it at some point in their life.

– El-alfy et al. (2010), Fisher T et al (2016), Fraguas-Sanchez Al et al (2016), Hsiao et al. (2012), Kenyon J et al (2018), Ligresti et al. (2006), Massi P et al (2013), McAllister et al. (2011), Opitz B.J et al (2019), Pellati F et al (2018), Pisanti et al. (2013), Ramer et al. (2014), Ramer R et al (2016), Rocha et al. (2014), Scott et al. (2014), Shoval et al. (2016), Shrivastava et al. (2011), Ward S.J et al (2014)

Chronic Pain

Pain that lasts more than 3 months is referred to as chronic and leads to a serious reduction in quality of life. There are several possible causes; chemical levels in the brain, genetics or experiencing a traumatic event.

– Boychuk et al. (2015), Petzke et al. (2016), Urits I et al (2019)

Depression
Characterised by sadness lasting for at least weeks, depression can be mild or severe enough to lead to suicide. Sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms such as pain, lack of appetite or sex drive.

– Almeida et al. (2013), Bergamaschi et al. (2011), Lemos et al. (2010), Marinho et al. (2015), de Mello S et al. (2014), Moreira et al. (2006), Schier A et al (2014)

Diabetes

Both Type 1 and 2 diabetes are related to a lack of the hormone Insulin, leading to increased blood sugar levels. If unmanaged, it can lead to major health issues or even death.

– Rajesh M et al (2010), Toth C.C et al (2010)

Epilepsy

A neurological condition that causes bursts of electrical activity in the brain, called seizures. Seizures can have a wide range of effects, some of which are severely debilitating.

– Devinsky et al. (2011), Devinsky et al. (2014), Devinsky et al. (2016), Gofshteyn JS et al. (2017), Pamplona F.A et al. (2018), Pertwee (2008), Porter B.E et al. (2013)

Fibromyalgia

A form of chronic pain, often accompanied by tiredness, stiffness and increased sensitivity. Reasonably common with no known cure.

– Moeller-Bertram et al (2019), Sinai A et al (2018)

Huntington’s Disease

An inherited condition that stops the brain working. Worsens over time and is fatal typically within 20 years. Causes poor coordination, depression and personality changes.

– Consroe et al. (1991), Iuvone et al. (2009), Pisanti S et al (2017), Sagredo O et al (2007), Sagredo et al. (2011)

IBS / Chron’s Disease

A lifelong condition characterised by inflammation of the digestive tract. Symptoms may be constant or come and go and consist of diarrhoea, tiredness and stomach cramps.

Esposito G et al (2012), Naftali T et al (2013)

Insomnia

An inability to consistently get regular sleep. Could be an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep or wake, lying awake all night or still feeling tired despite having slept.

– Carlini E.A et al (1981), Linares I.M.P et al (2018)

Ischemic Stroke (cerebral infarction)

Caused by a clot blocking blood flow to the brain. Survivors are often left with long-term brain problems and care requirements for the rest of their life.

– Hayakawa et al. (2007), Hayakawa et al. (2009), Mori M.A et al (2017), Pazos et al. (2012, 2013), Valdepeñas et al. (2011)

Migraine

A strong headache typically felt on one side of the brain, migraines are a common affliction among adults that can occur often of years apart. Thought to be caused by chemicals or blood flow in the brain.

– Russo E.B et al (2005), Russo E.B (2008), Russo E.B (2014), Turner Z et al (2018)

Multiple Sclerosis

A life-long condition that can cause serious disability. Symptoms include fatigue, muscle problems and reduced thinking capability, caused by the body’s immune system attacking the protective covering of the nerve system.

– Buccellato et al (2011), Elliott DM et al (2017), Giacoppo et al (2015), Kozela et al (2011, 2015), Mecha et al (2013)

Parkinson’s Disease

Caused by a loss of nerve cells in the brain, Parkinson’s leads to shaking, stiffness and inflexibility. Affects around 1 in 500 people and has no cure.

–  Chagas M.H.N et al (2014a), Chagas MHN et al (2014b), Iffland K et al (2017), Lastres-Becker et al. (2005), Zuardi et al. (2009)

PTSD

An anxiety disorder caused by very stressful or traumatic events. Suspected to affect 1 in 3 who suffer one of these events. Can cause nightmares, feelings of isolation and flashbacks.

– Bitencourt R.M et al (2018), Campos A.C et al (2012), Elms L et al (2019), Loflin M.J.E et al (2017)

Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease)

A common condition of the nervous system that causes an urge to move one’s legs. Also associated with involuntary jerking of the arms and legs.

– Crippa J.A et al (2019), Ghorayeb (2019)

Schizophrenia

A severe long-term form of psychosis that causes a range of symptoms including hallucinations, delusions and loss of interest. The cause is unknown and it requires constant, bespoke care to properly manage.

– Leweke F.M et al (2012), Morgan C.J.A et al (2008)

Skin problems

A wide range of issues such as eczema, psoriasis or just dryness. Many have no cure, only treatments, but even curable conditions can cause discomfort and irritation.

– Lodzki M et al (2003), Sinai A et al (2018b)

 

 

References

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              Aran A et al (2018) Cannabidiol Based Medical Cannabis in Children with Autism- a Retrospective Feasibility Study. American Academy of Neurology; 90: 308.

              Bergamaschi M et al. (2011a) Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology; 36(6): 1219-1226

              Bergamaschi M et al. (2011b) Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent. Current drug safety; 6: 237-249

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              Boychuk D.G et al. (2015). The effectiveness of cannabinoids in the management of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain: A systematic review. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache; 29: 7–14.

              Buccellato E et al. (2011). Acute and chronic cannabinoid extracts administration affects motor function in a CREAE model of multiplesclerosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 133: 1033-1038.

              Campos A.C et al (2012) Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors. Journal of Psychiatric Research; 46: 1501-1510.

              Carlini EA et a.l. (1981) Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 21(S1): 417s-427s

              Chagas M.H.N et al. (2014a) Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology; 28(11): 1088-1098

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              Cheng D et al. (2014) Long-term cannabdiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer’sdisease transgenic mice. Journal of Alzheimer’s diseas: JAD; 42(2): 1383-1396

              Consroe P et al. (1991) Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior; 40: 701–708.

              Crippa J.A et al. (2011) Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England); 25(1): 121-130

              Crippa J.A et al. (2015) Cannabidiol and sodium nitroprusside: Two novel neuromodulatory pharmacological interventions to treat and prevent psychosis. CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets; 14: 970–978.

              Crippa J.A et al. (2019) Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience; 269: 121-133

              Devinsky et al. (2014) Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role

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              Devinsky O et al. (2016) Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: An open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurology; 15: 270–278

              Devinsky O et al. (2017) Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine; 376(21): 2011-2020

              El-Alfy A.T et al (2010) Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior;

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              Elms L et al. (2019) Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 25(4): 392-397

              Elliott DM et al. (2018)  Cannabidiol Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis Through Induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Frontires in Immunology; 9: 1782

              Esposito G et al. (2006a) The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits beta-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/beta-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells. Journal of Molecular Medicine; 84: 253-258

              Esposito G. et al (2006b) Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement. Neuroscience Letters; 399: 91-95

              Esposito G. et al (2012) Cannabidiol in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A

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              FDA approves first drug comprised of an active ingredient derived from marijuana to treat rare, severe forms of epilepsy. June 25; 2018. https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm611046.htm

              Fisher T et al. (2016) In vitro and in vivio efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblsatoma. Current oncology (Toronto, Ont); 23(2): S15-22

              Fraguas-Sanchez Al et al. (2016) Phytco-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Expert opinion o Investigational Drugs; 25(11): 1311-1323

              Fraguas-Sanchez Al et al. (2018) Medical Use of Cannabinoids. Drugs; 78(16): 1665-1703

              Ghorayeb I. (2019) More evidence of cannabis efficacy in restless legs syndrome. Sleep and Breathing; [ePublication ahead of print]

              Giacoppo S et al. (2015). Purified cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, alone, counteracts neuronal apoptosis in experimental multiple sclerosis. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences; 19: 4906–4919.

              Gofshteyn J.S et al. (2017) Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Bebrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases. Journal of Child Neurology; 32(1): 35-40

              Gomes F.V et al. (2015) Decreased glial reactivity could be involved in the antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol. Schizophrenia Research; 164: 155–163

              GW Pharmaceuticals Announces Second Positive Phase 3 Pivotal Trial for Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) oral solution CV in Patients with Dravet Syndrome [press release]. November 26; 2018. http://ir.gwpharm.com/news-releases/news-release-details/gw-pharmaceuticals-announces-second-positive-phase-3-pivotal-0

              Hammell D.C et al. (2016) Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain; 20: 936-948

              Hayakawa K et al. (2007) Delayed treatment with Cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action via a cannabinoid receptor-independent myeloperoxidase-inhibiting mechanism. Journal of Neurochemistry; 102: 1488-1496

              Hayakawa K et al. (2009) Therapeutic time window of cannabidiol treatment on delayed ischemic damage via highmobility group box1-inhibiting mechanism. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin; 32: 1538–1544

              Hsiao Y.T et al. (2012) Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plusmaze in rats. Neuropharmacology; 62: 373–384

              Iffland K et al. (2017) An Update on Safety amd Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and cannabinoid research; 2(1): 139-154

              Iuvone T et al. (2009) Cannabidiol: A promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics; 15: 65–75.

              Kenyon J et al. (2018) Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-grade Synthetic Cannabidiol. Anticancer research; 38(10): 5831-5835

              Kozela E et al. (2011) Cannabidiol inhibits pathogenic T cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiplesclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice. British Journal of

Pharmacology; 163: 1507–1519

              Kozela E et al (2015) Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, leads to EGR2-dependent anergy in activated encephalitogenic Tcells. Journal of Neuroinflammation; 12: 52

              Lastres-Becker I et al. (2005) Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of Disease; 19: 96–107

              Lemos J.I et al. (2010) Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behavioural Brain Research; 207: 105–111.

              Leweke F.M et al. (2012) Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational psychiatry; 2: e94

              Ligresti A. et al (2006) Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics; 318: 1375–1387

              Linares I.M.P et al. (2018) No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study. Frontiers in Pharmacology; Article 315

              Lodzki M. et al (2003) Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in

a murine model. Journal of Controlled Release; 93: 377 – 387.

              Loflin M.J.E et al (2017) Cannabinoids as therapeutic for PTSD. Current Opinion in Psychology; 14: 78-83.

              Malfait A.M et al. (2000) The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 97(17): 9561-9566

              Marinho A.L et al (2015) Effects of intrainfralimbic prefrontal cortex injections of cannabidiol in themodulation of emotional behaviors in rats: Contribution of 5HT1A receptors and stressful experiences. Behavioural Brain Research; 286: 49–56

              Martín-Moreno A.M et al. (2011). Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids reduce microglial activation in vitro and in vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Pharmacology; 79: 964–973

              Massi P et al. (2013) Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 75(2): 303-312

              Mecha M et al. (2013) Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: A role for A2A receptors. Neurobiology of Disease; 59: 141–150

              de Mello Schier A.R et al (2014) Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of

cannabidiol: A chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets; 13: 953–960

              Moeller-Bertram T et al. (2019) Can CBD Reduce the Use of Pain Medication? Lessons from a Survey in a Pain Clinic Environment. The Journal of Pain; [Epublication]

              Moreira F.A et al (2006) Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry; 30: 1466–1471

              Morgan C.J.A et al (2008) Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like

symptoms in people who use cannabis. British Journal of Psychiatry; 192: 306-307.

              Mori M.A et al. (2017) Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplascticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry; 75: 94-105

              Naftali et al. (2013) Cannabis Induces a Clinical Response in Patients With Crohn’s Disease: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 11: 1276-1280

              Opitz BJ et al. (2019) The Potential Clinical Implications and Importance of Drug Interactions Between Anticancer Agents and Cannabidiol in Patients With Cancer. Journal of Pharmacy Practice; [Epublication]

              Pamplona F.A et al. (2018) Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis. Frontiers in Neurology; 9: 759

              Parker L.A et al. (2004) Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Psychopharmacology; 171(2): 156-161

              Pazos M.R et al. (2012) Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function. Neuropharmacology; 63: 776–783.

              Pazos M.R et al. (2013) Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: Role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors. Neuropharmacology; 71: 282–291

              Pellati F et al. (2018) Cannabis sativa L and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemisrty and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer. BioMed Research International; 2018: 1-15

              Pertwee R.G (2008) The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9- tetrahydrocannabivarin. British Journal of Pharmacology; 153: 199–215

              Petzke F et al. (2016) Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids for chronic neuropathic pain: A systematic review of randomized controlled studies. Der Schmerz; 30: 62–88

              Pisanti S et al. (2017) Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics; 175: 133-150

              Poleg S et al. (2019) Cannabidiol as a suggested candidate for treatment of autism spectrum disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry; 89: 90-96

              Porter B.E et al. (2013) Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use

in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Behaviour; 29: 574-577.

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Andrew Megahy1

Andrew Megahy

Lead Scientific Officer Linkedin